13 Grilling Mistakes That Could Make You Sick
Summer doesn’t officially start until your first barbecue. Keep everyone safe and healthy with these grilling guidelines.
Keep grilling season fun and healthy
Grilling is one of America’s favorite pastimes—more than 70 percent of Americans own a grill or a smoker. As beloved as a summer cookout may be, it also hides some health hazards. Here’s what you need to know before you fire up the grill.
Mistake: You skipped the marinade
The American Institute for Cancer Research recommends that grillers marinate all meat, including beef and chicken, for at least 30 minutes in the fridge before cooking. “It’ll create a protective barrier on the outside of the meat that prevents flames from causing carcinogens,” says Julie Lanford, RD, the wellness director at Cancer Services in Winston-Salem, NC. Specifically, a mix of vinegar, lemon juice, or wine—plus various herbs and spices—decreases the formation of heterocyclic amines (HCAs). These potentially cancer-causing chemicals form when the proteins in meat are exposed to high temperatures. If pork is on the menu, consider marinating it for four hours in a dark lager or a pilsner. This’ll reduce the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are similar to HCAs, according to research published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Find out more ways to cut down on the cancer risk while grilling.
Mistake: You defrosted the burgers on the counter
The slow, room-temperature thaw is a sure-fire way to encourage the growth of dangerous bacteria, according to the USDA. Instead, thaw meat and fish in your refrigerator. And keep in mind that a pound of ground meat will need at least a full day in the fridge to properly thaw. If you need it sooner, tightly seal the frozen meat in a plastic bag and submerge it in cold water; change out the water every half hour until the meat is ready to grill.
Mistake: You cleaned your grill with a wire-bristle brush
Of course, you need to regularly clean your grill—but don’t use a wire-bristle brush. A 2016 study found that these brushes resulted in more than 1,600 emergency room visits since 2002. Researchers found that loose bristles can fall off during cleaning and wind up in the food you’re grilling, leading to painful injuries to the mouth, throat, and tonsils. For a safer option, try the GrillStone Grill Cleaner. Here are 11 great tips for keeping your grill spick and span from grilling guru and TV chef Steven Raichlen.
Mistake: You went the well-done route
People who prefer their meat, poultry, or fish cooked well-done have a 15 percent increased risk of high blood pressure compared to those who opt for medium or medium-rare, according to Harvard researchers. It’s thought that the chemicals produced by cooking meats at high temperatures over an extended period of time increase oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance, all of which can up one’s chance of developing hypertension.
Mistake: You didn’t swap utensils
“If you place raw meat on the grill using one set of tongs or a spatula, you need to either wash it properly or get a clean utensil to take the cooked meat off when it’s done,” warns Emily Forauer with the national non-profit Stop Foodborne Illness. If you don’t, you could transfer bacteria from the pre-cooked meat. Be sure to follow the same rules for cutting boards and plates: If they held raw meat, they need to be washed before you re-use them. Find out more BBQ and grilling mistakes even seasoned chefs make.
Mistake: You nixed the pepper
As any grill master knows, sometimes a dry rub is better than a marinade—and you sidestep HCAs this way. Researchers at Kansas State University found that sprinkling black pepper and other antioxidant-rich spices like rosemary, thyme, and oregano on raw steak—or blending them into burger meat—before grilling can eliminate almost all HCAs.
Mistake: You didn’t flip your burgers enough
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Keep your spatula active, say the experts at the UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center in Sacramento. They recommend flipping your hamburger patties once every minute until the meat is cooked. This constant turning raises the meat’s internal temperature gradually, which reduces HCA formation by up to 100 percent. And move the patties around the grill while you’re at it: “When all the fat drips in one place, it can cause a fire flare-up,” says Lanford. “When the flame touches meat, you create an environment ripe for dangerous substances to form.” Always follow these golden rules for a safe, healthy grilling season, too.
Mistake: You’re not using a meat thermometer
“Looking for the pink to disappear is not the best way to determine if your meat is cooked,” says Forauer. “About one in four hamburgers turn brown before they’re ready to eat.” And you don’t want to consume under-cooked meat, which can contain bacteria like Salmonella or E. coli that can lead to foodborne illnesses. The only way to truly tell if your food’s done is with a meat thermometer. Insert the thermometer into the thickest part of the meat—and test other areas—to check if your meat has reached a safe internal temperature (SIT). For all ground meat and meat mixtures (like turkey and beef burgers), that’s 160°F. It dips to 145°F for all whole cuts of red meat (steak, rack of lamb or chops, fish). The SIT goes up to 165°F for poultry. If you’re big into grilling, you may want to invest in a thermometer that can gauge the temperature on multiple cuts at once, like the Weber iGrill 2 Thermometer.
Mistake: You skipped this pre-grill step
Briefly pre-cooking meat prior to grilling can reduce levels of potentially cancer-causing HCAs: “By microwaving, boiling, or baking your meat a bit before putting it on the grill, you reduce the amount of time your food needs to be on the grill. The less time it’s exposed to heat and flame, the fewer potential carcinogens form,” says Lanford. According to the UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, pre-cooking a hamburger for a few minutes in the microwave removes up to 95 percent of HCAs. An important caveat: If the BBQ in question is at a friend’s house or in the park, never partially cook your meat at home, pack it up, and finish grilling it at your destination. Half-cooked meat is a breeding ground for bacterial growth. Watch out for these other cooking mistakes you make that make your food toxic.